<h2>AUTHORS: Serhii SOKOLIUK, Olexiy CHIRIKALOV</h2>
<h4>PARTICIPATION OF SUBMARINES IN COUNTER-EVACUATION ACTIONS OF THE BLACK SEA FLEET DURING THE CRIMEAN STRATEGIC OFFENSIVE OPERATION (APRIL 8 – MAY 12, 1944)</h4>
<pre>Danubius, XL, Galati, 2022, pp. 85-116.</pre>
The article highlights the role and place of submarines in the actions of the Soviet Black Sea Fleet on enemy communications in the spring of 1944. In particular, it analyzes the experience of participation of Soviet submarines in the counter-evacuation measures of the Black Sea Fleet during the Crimean strategic offensive operation in April-May 1944. The authors also analyzed factors that influenced the performance of this type of combat activity of Soviet submarines and carried out a reconstruction of the course of events during the participation of the Black Sea Fleet in counter-evacuation operations during the specified period. They revealed the mechanism of planning and preparation of such actions and gave qualitative characteristics of the involved forces of the opposing parties. The article analyses tactics used in conducting counter-evacuation operations by different types of forces, evaluates the efficiency and effectiveness of their implementation, determines the role of individual types of forces of the Black Sea Fleet, in particular, the results of submarine activities in conducting counter-evacuation operations.
The authors identified the factors that significantly reduced the efficiency of the use of submarines, namely: the limited repair capabilities and considerable remoteness of the bases from the task areas; powerful anti-submarine defense of the enemy; shortcomings in the work of staffs and insufficient tactical training of commanders; unsatisfactory level of interaction, especially the guidance of reconnaissance aircraft submarines; low reliability of torpedo weapons.